‘We, on the other side’: Black Internationalism in the Lusophone World, 1950s-1980s
In the decades following the second world war, Black Brazilians were entering into a racialized political consciousness at unprecedented levels at the same time that Africans in the Portuguese colonies were at war for national independence. Ideas about sovereignty, self-determination, Blackness, and liberation reverberated across the Luso-Atlantic as activist-intellectuals traveled toward, read about, and fought alongside each other. This dissertation examines how these postwar relationships forged between Black activists in Brazil and anti-colonial revolutionaries of Portuguese-speaking Africa (Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, and São Tome e Principe) shaped the intellectual currents of their respective movements. Drawing on archived exchanges, Black press publications, organizational documents, Portuguese and Brazilian surveillance documents, and oral history interviews, I ask questions not only of the ideas that migrated but of the routes that made them possible. It is my hope that this work will further our understanding of the histories of Black Internationalism, the limits and possibilities of Black transnational solidarity, and the lasting legacy of (Portuguese) empire.